First of all, it is important to explain what the word "synthesis" means. It is a mix of elements used to draw the whole picture. That is how one can conclude that a synthesis essay stands for the sort of essay which combines various points into a whole to defend so-called thesis statement. A thesis is the main idea of the essay. Students should write it in the last sentence of their introduction. Frequently, it comes with a piece that a student has to observe.
The main success factor of writing a good synthesis essay is an in-depth research based on the relevant sources. A student has to perceive the goal of the analyzed content, its rhetoric, and the arguments suggested by the author. To make it short, the writer simply has to provide an answer to the question: "So what?" Type in your personal claim. The rest of your synthesis essay in English should be built around that main sentence.
Choose Synthesis Essay Topic Before You Write the First Page
Sometimes, the teacher does not provide a specific topic or question to answer. In that cases, the student has a right to select any topic for his synthesis essay. Mind that your entire writing will be limited to the chosen question, so make your decision wisely. Select a topic for which it would be easy to write as many arguments as needed. Usually, there are 3-5 arguments in the academic essay.
The prompt has to be debatable. It has to motivate the readers to continue the discussion. Several centuries ago, the US population would support the ideas of Andrew Jackson concerning the negative sides of Native American people. However, today the situation is completely different. Any sort of discrimination is forbidden in the United States. The way you select the primary questions depends on your specific task. Make sure to decide on the text that may have opposing views. In other words, choose an article with the strong argument which may encourage your readers not just to read the synthesis essay from cover to cover, but also go on discussing the selected questions.
The best topics for your essay writing would always sound negotiable like these examples:
- Minimum salary
- For and against abortions
- Global warming
- Regulations for immigrants
- Daylight storage
- Gun control
- Drug abuse
- Social media
- Artificial intelligence
- Political authorities
- Alcohol and tobacco restrictions
- Anorexia nervosa
It is easy to find the sufficient amount of information on any of these essay topics as they are relevant for people of all times, ages, and nationalities.
Writing Thesis Statement and Outline Page
After you decide on your topic or main questions to discuss, move to your sources. Make sure all gathered sources are related to your essay topic. Also, they have to be no older than 5-10 years as things change dynamically.
Thoroughly study all sources to get the main point. Select the best sources to use citations from them in your essay. It will serve as a perfect evidence to support your argument. Structure your claim. Write down thesis statement which is the main idea of the whole synthesis essay.
Thesis example: With the help of historical episodes, it is possible to point to the human evolution based on how infinity was interpreted in different epochs.
Another example: Only through an understanding of the causes of medical mistakes and their prevention on the early stages, the number of medical gaps will go down as well as the number of unintentional deaths in the United States.
You can view more example online without paying a cent.
As for the outline, this is a plan of your synthesis essay. Writing this part will assist you in maintaining the structure of your essay. In case your essay is going to have three main sections, divide the outline into three chunks respectively. Insert evidence to support your thesis, include sub-arguments along with all specific points. Every part should have a name (except for the introduction and conclusion- you may leave them this way). Every point (which is also an argument) must prove the major claim of your essay. Avoid additional information or tangents as these elements may hinder the essay. It is recommended to write down the information which contradicts with your thesis. It will make the essay more persuasive. Your synthesis essay has to be as strong as possible.
The Structure of Any Type of a Good Academic Essay
Read all sources thoroughly, especially when you work with articles instead of the thick books. Never summarize sources or copy-paste ideas of other authors. It is strictly forbidden. You may write summaries only if you have to write an annotated bibliography. Synthesis denotes analysis instead of the abstracts of your readings.
The example of your essay structure may be:
- Argument #1
- Argument #2
- Argument #3
- Argument 1
- Evidence (cite a source)
- Analysis of Evidence
- Argument 2
- Evidence (cite a source)
- Analysis of Evidence
- Argument 3
- Evidence (cite a source)
- Analysis of Evidence
- Argument 1
- Restate thesis and answer all the questions left behind
What about the Writing Style?
Formatting is an important condition of the successful synthesis essay. Academic writing defines several formats. Their names are related to the scientific or educational organizations that established these styles.
The most widespread formats are:
The first one is applied to the essays in Humanities. The second one is used while writing essays on Education, Psychology, and Science. Turabian or Chicago format is excellent for Business, History, and Fine Arts.
There is a Purdue Owl guide available online for free which can tell more about each of the existing academic writing styles. It has all the details about MLA and APA, while Easybib and some other online citation generators help students to format essays automatically. Simply insert your external sources to get proper citations for them.
Here are the basic nuances to consider:
- Times New Roman
- 12 pt font
- Double-spaced text
- 1" margins all around
- Top right of the page should have student's last name and page number
- Titles and headings are put in the center
- The header must have your name, your professor's name, course number, and the full date (dd/mm/yy)
- The last page is Bibliography page (a.k.a. Works Cited or References)
It is an example of MLA synthesis essay. Other examples and templates are available online for free. You can find an example of a page in APA style here.
Features of an AP Synthesis Essay in English
AP English Language and Composition is a separate academic course. Students who are enrolled in this class must perform a deep understanding of the subject matter through using various sources and operating with the information they already know. Grammar, spelling, structure, and originality might be insufficient to receive the highest score on your AP exam. The writing has to be "defending, challenging, qualifying the claim." Once you obtain the course syllabus, it is better to study it to learn the exact test dates and what it would look like.
It is important to concentrate on three main branches of the AP English and Composition. Those are argument, synthesis, and rhetoric. That is why all three elements should be present in your synthesis essay. Let’s have a closer look.
The argument is the simplest part; it's about writing your thesis and gathering evidence from the selected sources to defend your ideas. Prove to your reader that your point of view is correct.
Synthesis demands that a student reads multiple sources and defines pros and cons of the chosen topic (or for and against, if you wish). It is critical as it helps to create your personal claim.
Rhetorical analysis is all about the author and his goals. It has to explain the purpose of writing as well as describe the target audience. Finally, it explains the ways in which the writer attracts the readers and structures the claim.
Useful Prompts Associated with Writing Synthesis Essay
Memorize these acronyms to be able to answer all questions of your synthesis essay properly.
Advice #1: SOAPS
It's all about determining the speaker, occasion, audience, purpose, and subject.
Have a look at our example: The American Health Association believes that only through an understanding of the causes of medical mistakes and their prevention on the early stages, the number of medical gaps will go down as well as the number of unintentional deaths in the United States.
Speaker: The American Health Association has a bias against the inexperienced medical personnel.
Occasion: The American Health Association has held its meeting on Abbey Square, New York, on the 10th of November 2016.
Audience: The report written by The American Health Association was addressed to the doctors of the main regional hospitals in NY.
Purpose: The American Health Association tries to point to the main causes of unintentional deaths in the US hospitals. It performs against the improper medical treatment.
Subject: The subject is the increased number of fatal outcomes due to the lack of healthcare education and professionalism of the local personnel.
Advice #2: Logos, Ethos, and Pathos
We are speaking about the reasons, philosophy, and emotion respectively. AP Lang exam requires you to deal with all three Latin words effectively.
When there are some facts and statistics in the chosen text, the writer deals with Logos. Return to the background information all the time to make your synthesis essay as persuasive a possible.
The vivid imagery and powerful words are the signs of Pathos. It is effective for relating the readers to the essay on the emotional level.
If you aim to show the accountability and credibility of your synthesis essay, you deal with Ethos. State some facts that prove your competence in the chosen field so that the audience will have no doubt that you are right.
Watch out as often, Logos, Ethos, and Pathos may lead to the usage of logical fallacies.
It would be a great strategy for any sort of textual analysis. When you are reading the selected piece, make an attempt to pinpoint Diction, Imagery, Details, Language, and Sentence Structure. Add whatever seems more vivid to you into your analysis.
As you can see, it is not that easy to write a synthesis essay. Many students have problems either with writing or analyzing sources. Luckily, there is an opportunity to order an instant help with synthesis essay for an affordable price. When you face any doubts, turn to the expert online service which will write the whole essay to bring you to the highest score!
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Fernando Zalamea Traba is a mathematician at Universidad Nacional de Colombia at Bogotá with main interests in categorical logic, non-classical logic, history and philosophy of mathematics. He is also writing essays in cultural studies.
Just as Albert Lautman identified 5 features characteristic of advanced (post mid-19th century) mathematics (1-5 in this list), Zalamea identifies an additional set of 5 characteristics (6-10 in this list) which emerge only in the mid 20th century and (in addition to 1-5, which are conserved) define contemporary mathematics:
the complex hierarchisation of various theories, irreducible to systems of intermediate deduction;
the richness of the models, irreducible to linguistic manipulation;
the unity of structural methods and of conceptual polarites, beyond the effective multiplicity of models;
the dynamics of the creative activity, in a permanent back-and-forth between freedom and saturation, open to the Platonic division and the Platonic dialectic;
the mathematically demonstrable relation between what is multiple on a given level and what is singular on another, through a sophisticated lattice of mixed ascents and descents.
the structural impurity of arithmetic (Weil’s conjectures, Langlands program, the theorems of Deligne, Faltings and Wiles etc.)
the systematic geometrization of all environments of mathematics (sheaves, homologies, cobordisms, geometrical logic etc.)
the schematization and the liberation from set theoretical, algebraic, and topological restrictions (groupoids, categories, schemas, topoi, motifs etc..)
the fluxion and deformation of the usual boundaries of mathematical structures (nonlinearity, noncommutativity, nonelemantarity, quantization etc)
the reflexivity of theories and models onto themselves (classification theory, fixed-point theorems, monstrous models, elementary/nonelementary classes etc..)
A programmatic construction of a sheaf of partial cultural gluings could then be articulated around three main pieces of information: (I) Methodological forces: topological and transformational thinking, universal relatives, logic of sheaves, residuation theory, pendulum weaving, etc. (II) Cultural realizations: critical theory, metaphoric sedimentation, contaminating strata, mediating hierarchies, etc. (III) Projective goals: description of reflective residues (gluing local and global), dense fabrics (joining multipolar threads), plastic generic forms (allowing continuity and dislocating dualisms), etc. It is our contention that (i) Peirce’s system and many mathematical tools, both modern (Riemann, Galois) and contemporary (Grothendieck), provide all the necessary theoretical background to support (I); (ii) Germany’s critical dialectical tradition and Latin America’s TRANS essayists give good examples of how to deal with (II); and (iii) the very “end” of Postmodernism as such, with its reformulations within Modernism and Transmodernism, show the imperative of the integrated relativity, plasticity and contamination sought in (III). Precise labours on these problems will take years, but, with many non-standard tools at hand, pragmaticism and “razonabilidad” can lead the way.
Fernando Zalamea, Filosofía sintética de las matemáticas contemporáneas, (Spanish) Obra Selecta. Editorial Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, 2009. 231 pp. MR2599170, ISBN: 978-958-719-206-3, pdf. Transl. into English by Zachary Luke Fraser: Synthetic philosophy of contemporary mathematics, Sep. 2011. bookpage. Some excerpts are here (pdf).
G. Maddalena, F. Zalamea, A new analytic/synthetic/horotic paradigm. From mathematical gesture to synthetic/horotic reasoning., European journal of pragmatism and American philosphy 2009 pdf
Fernando Zalamea Traba, Ariada y Penélope. Redes y mixturas en el mundo contemporáneo, 2004
Fernando Zalamea Traba, America – una trama integral: Transversalidad, bordes y abismos en la cultura americana, siglos XIX y XX, Biblioteca abierta. Estudios interdisciplinarios 2009
F. Zalamea, Versus Laboratory Seminar 24: Sheaf Logic & Philosophical Synthesis, mp3 audio file <https://archive.org/download/VersusLaboratorySeminar24SheafLogicPhilosophicalSynthesisWith/Sem24-FernandoZalamea_02.mp3>
Giuseppe Longo, Synthetic Philosophy of Mathematics and Natural Sciences: Conceptual Analyses from a Grothendieckian Perspective. (Reflections on “Synthetic Philosophy of Contemporary Mathematics” by Fernando Zalamea).
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